The Hydrocomp Forecasting and Analysis Model was set up to model flows into
Figure 1. Baker River DEM
DEMs are digital records of terrain elevations for
ground positions at regularly spaced horizontal intervals. Coverages for the contiguous
Data for digital elevation, aerial photography, digital maps and Landsat images can be found at:
STATSGO Soils Data
The State Soil Geographic Database (STATSGO) for
ArcView 3.2 Procedure
ArcView 3.2 and the Spatial Analyst were used for the GIS analysis. The hydro11.avx sample scripts that accompany Spatial Analyst were used to perform some of the spatial calculations. The ArcView on-line help provides additional information on the use of the hydrologic modeling extension and map calculator.
The hydrologic modeling menu (available by loading the hydro11.avx extension) was used to fill sinks in the DEM, to calculate spatial grids of flow direction and flow accumulation, and to create a stream network.
The watershed option was used to generate a watershed grid. The watershed grid was converted to a shapefile, which defines each area as a polygons. The watershed polygons were combined where necessary, and deleted when outside of the watershed, to provide a polygon for each reach. Reaches were numbered from 3000 to 3110.
Figure 3. HFAM Reaches
The watershed polygons were converted to a revised watershed grid. The map calculator (available by loading the spatial analyst extension) was used to generated a mask. The mask was calculated as the watershed grid divided by the watershed grid. This calculation results in a value of 0 outside the watershed and 1 within the watershed. This mask was used to exclude areas outside of the watershed from future calculations and graphics.
Figure 4. Watershed Mask
Slope, aspect and hill shade were calculated for the watershed area using the surface menu option (available by loading the spatial analyst extension). Hill shade requires entry of solar altitude and azimuth. The solar properties for a given location and date are available on-line through the data services provided by the U.S. Naval Observatory: http://aa.usno.navy.mil/AA/
Figure 5. Slope, Aspect and Hill shade
Elevation was reclassified into 200m bands using Analysis, Reclassify from the view window menu options (0-16). Aspect was reclassified as NE or SW (0 or 1).
Figure 6. Reclassified Elevation and Aspect
Land segments in HFAM are defined as hydrologically homogeneous units. For the 297 sq. mi. (769 sq. km.)
Figure 7. Segment Grid and Segment Polygons
The average elevation, slope, aspect and hill shade of each segment type was calculated by selecting Analysis, Summarize Zones. ArcView creates tables for each parameter that can be exported in Microsoft Excel format.
The average elevation and downstream channel elevation for each reach was calculated by selecting Analysis, Summarize Zones.
The view image was set to display both the reaches and the stream network.
Figure 8. Reaches and Stream Network
Channel length in each reach was measured manually using the measure tool.
Using the GIS Output
ArcView GIS was used to calculate the following parameters:
This data was imported into an Excel spreadsheet. The spreadsheet calculated the HFAM hydrologic and hydraulic parameters and generated the HFAM input files.
Relationships between the GIS output and the HFAM parameters were initially estimated from prior studies in the Baker and other watersheds and were included in Excel equations. These relationships were calibrated to the Baker watershed from simulated/recorded streamflows and simulated/recorded data at snow courses. A twenty-five year hydrometeorologic data base was used for calibration. Hourly hydrologic process calculations were used for 423 ‘land segments'.
A generic version of the Excel spreadsheet will be made available to other HFAM users to assist in generating HFAM input parameters from GIS output.